e hënë, janar 09, 2006

Shteti- Kombi dhe Nacionalizmi

CHAPTER 5: THE STATE

The state as a political association that establishes sovereign jurisdiction within defined territorial borders (pp. 86-8).
The pluralist state as a neutral arbiter between or amongst the competing groups in society (pp. 88-90).
The capitalist state as an instrument of class rule or a means of arbitrating between competing classes so as to perpetuate a system of unequal class power (pp. 90-2).
The leviathan state as a state pursuing its own interests rather than those of civil society (and bent on expansion and aggrandisement) (pp. 92-5).
Minimal states as protective bodies which provide merely a framework of peace and social order within which citizens can conduct their lives as they think best (pp. 95-6).
Developmental states as states that intervene in economic life for the specific purpose of promoting industrial growth and economical development (pp. 96-7).
Social-democratic states as states that practise economic and social interventionism to rectify the imbalances and injustices of a market economy (p. 97).
Collectivised states as states that extend control over the entirety of economic life, usually through a system of central planning (pp. 97-8).
Totalitarian states as all-encompassing states whose influence penetrates every aspect of human existence, thus abolishing the distinction between the state and civil society (p. 98).
The state has been 'hollowed out' by the impact of globalization, which has significantly weakened the state's control over economic life and constrained social-democratic interventionism (pp. 99-100).
States have been restructured through privatization and the introduction of market reforms in the public services (p. 100).
States have been weakened by the growth of substate governance, reflected in the transfer of responsibilities from national or central bodies to a regional, local or community level (pp. 100-1).

CHAPTER 6: NATIONS AND NATIONALISM
Nations as complex phenomena that are shaped by a collection of cultural, political and psychological factors (p. 106).
Nations as cultural communities that are shaped by language, religious, ethnic or other cultural similarities (pp. 107-8).
Nations as political communities that are shaped by civic loyalties and political allegiances, ultimately by the quest to establish or maintain sovereign statehood (pp. 109-11).
Liberal nationalism as a principled form of nationalism based on the nation-state ideal (pp. 111-4).
Conservative nationalism as an inward-looking or insular form of nationalism associated with the promise of social cohesion and public order, generated through national patriotism (pp. 114-5).
Expansionist nationalism as an aggressive and militaristic form of nationalism that is underpinned by chauvinist, and often racialist, assumptions (pp. 115-7).
Anticolonial nationalism as a fusion between traditional ideas of self-determination and doctrines of economic and social emancipation, united through the idea of 'national liberation' (pp. 117-9).
Multiculturalism as a positive endorsement of communal diversity based on the 'politics of difference' (pp. 119-21). The nation-state under threat from globalization and an upsurge in ethnic and regional politics (pp. 121-3).

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